Most of my buyers will tuen on a faucet or fluch a toiletwhen going through a house, and that’s usually the extent of checking out the water. The standard contract calls for the Seller to have the water tested if it’s from a well. This test is for the presence of bacteria only. It tells you nothing about amount of available water, flow rate, acidity and any other substances that may be present. To determine this will require a phone call or trip to the local environmental health department if the records exist, or, if they do not, a call to a well testing company.
Modern wells are drilled, whereas older ones were dug by hand or installed with a pile driver. A permit is first issued by the county Health Department showing where the well is allowed to be placed. Thw well driller then turns in a report once the well is installed that documents flow rate and depth along with other measurements. This is kept on file by the county. However, these records go back only so many years. Also, as wells age, their flow rates will slow down over time. That well pumping 15 gallons/minute when new may be down to 5 gallons/minute after 20 years or so. Also, hand dug or pile driven wells did not have the depth or capacity that newer wells have and may be marginal or insufficient for use.
If you are selling a farm or rural property served by a well, having it checked before you list can save you unexpected headaches if the buyer discovers the problem. I once had an appraiser order a well tested, resulting in the Seller having to get a new well installed before the sale could go through.